Today, 80% of businesses plan to automate work processes within five years and consequently now more than ever, there is a huge demand for software developers. In fact, the surge has already started. A huge leap in active software developers occurred worldwide from 18.2 million to 24.3 million between 2013 and 2021 —and the number is predicted to reach 45 million by 2030!
However, while programming is an essential skill for anyone looking to start a career in tech, choosing the right language to learn is not easy. There are hundreds of options out there, and more are being created every day. So, how do you know the best programming languages to learn in 2023?
The answer, of course, depends on what you want to use the programming language for. Different languages are better suited for different tasks. Some languages are more popular than others, and some languages are more in-demand by employers.
In this article, we will take a look at the top 10 programming languages for 2023. These languages are selected based on their popularity, usefulness, and ease of learning.
What Is a Programming Language?
A programming language is a system of notation for writing computer programs. It is used to create a set of instructions that a computer can understand while performing tasks.
There are dozens of popular programming languages, and each one has different syntax, or rules, that dictate how the instructions are written. Which means some languages are easier to learn than others, and some are great for particular tasks compared to others. For example, some languages are better suited for building websites, while others are better for creating apps or working with data.
Programming languages come in two variants – statically typing and dynamically typing.
Static typing is a style of typing in which variables are given a specific type when they are declared and are known at compile time. Dynamic typing, on the other hand, is a style of typing in which variables are not given a specific type, but instead are checked during run time.
Both static and dynamic typing have their advantages and disadvantages. Static typing can help to avoid errors by catching type errors at compile time, while dynamic typing can be more flexible and easier to use.
In subsequent sections, we’ll take a closer look at a few of the common choices – grouping them by typing – and help you decide the best programming language to learn in 2023.
So, without further ado, let’s jump right in!
Statically Typed Languages
Go, also known as Golang is an open-source programming language that was created by Google in 2007. It has been used for many different purposes and is now used by multiple big companies including Google, Dropbox, Twitch, and Uber. With between 1.2 to 2.7 million Golang developers, it’s easy to see why it’s one of the most popular languages out there.
Learning Level: Beginner to Intermediate
Skills Needed: Golang can be learned by someone who already knows one or several programming languages, particularly Python, PHP, and C++.
- Easy to use and simple to understand
- Rich in features and functionalities
- Built-in web server & a standard library
- Adaptable to C programming
- The programme can be modified and executed instantly
- Backed by Google
- Its generic features frustrate many developers
- Library support is very limited
- Is not versatile
- Lack of GUI library
Platform: Cross-platform (desktop)
Popularity: Increasingly becoming popular, especially among data scientists.
Average Annual Salary: $164,824 / yr
You can check out this Getting Started with Go specialization course to see if this language fits you.
- Great Java interoperability
- Clean and intuitive syntax
- Supported by both Google and JetBrains
- Compilation speed varies
- A low developer talent pool
- Learning resources and tutorials are limited compared to Java
- Object-oriented programming
- A high-level language that can access memory
- A broad range of .NET capabilities
- An integrated development environment (IDE)
- Inbuilt garbage collector
- There are some limitations to C#’s performance
- Learning C# isn’t easy
- .NET platform dependency
- X-Platform GUI is poor
- Easy to learn
- An organized syntax
- There is less code
- Faster than similar programming languages
- Source code is open
- The language is still young
- Third-party tool interoperability is poor
- Does not support iOS older versions
- Rich IDE support
- Early bugs spotting
- Quick refactoring
- Object-oriented programming (OOP)
- Cross-platform and cross-browser compatibility
- Code can be bloated
Scala combines the finest features of functional and OOP programming languages into a single, unique high language.
Scala has fully supported object-oriented programming since its inception and has been used for developing high-performance software. This makes Scala one of the most preferred languages for the development of large-scale applications and it is also integrated with Java, which makes it easy for developers to develop complex applications using both languages.
Netflix, Twitter, and the New York Times are among the businesses that use Scala.
Learning Level: Experienced.
Skills Needed: Java, Python, C, and C++ skills needed.
- Faster than Python
- The best for data analytics
- Excellent performance
- It has a small community presence.
- There isn’t much backward compatibility available in Scala.
- The complexity of Scala’s features and concepts makes learning more difficult.
Popularity: Scala’s popularity has suffered as a result of its complexity. It is presently ranked 26th on the TIOBE 2022 index.
Average Annual Salary: $149,152 / yr.
To see if Scala is the right fit for your career goals, check out this Effective Programming in Scala course to learn more about the language.
Java is a very popular programming language that has been around for decades so it’s no surprise it’s one of the most popular languages on this list.
Java is used for many different types of applications, including web applications and mobile apps. It’s also very easy to pick up if you’ve never programmed before.
Learning Level: Beginner Level (Java is considered to be quite easy for beginners to learn).
Skills Needed: Servlets and JavaServer pages, Scripting languages like HTML, CSS, and JQuery, Markup languages like XML and JSON, Web frameworks.
- Automatic Garbage Collection
- Object-Oriented Programming Language
- Java is Simple to learn
- Maintenance is inexpensive and economical
- Portability feature
- Security is a key feature of Java
- Supports multithreading
- Poor performance and slow response time
- GUI needs improvement
- Backups are not available
- Requires a significant amount of memory
- Extensive and complex code
- Not free
Platform: Cross-platform (Windows, macOS, Linux, and Unix operating systems)
Popularity: Java remains one of the most popular and widely used programming languages in the world. According to the TIOBE index for November 2022, it is the third top programming language for developers.
Average Annual Salary: $99,713 / yr.
If you are looking to learn Java in 2023, a good place to start is this Introduction to Java course offered by Learn Quest on Coursera.
- Ensures memory safety while delivering high performance.
- Concurrent programming is supported.
- Has a vibrant development community
- Ensures backward compatibility and stability.
- It does not have an efficient garbage collection system.
- A bit slower than Ruby and Python.
- It has a steep learning curve.
Statically Typed Languages
- Free and open source
- Independent of platforms
- An excellent library support system
- There is no need to write lengthy code
- It is not suitable for building large web applications
- Does not allow for modification or change
- Not much in terms of security
- Error handling is poor
- A robust community of ruby developers
- There is less code to write
- Robust library
- Enhanced readability of code.
- This is an easier language to learn.
- Performance issues
- Flexibility issues
- Inadequate documentation
- Open Source
- Adaptable to any platform
- Machine Learning Operations
- Exceptional data manipulation support
- Constantly growing
- It is difficult to learn
- R lacks basic security measures
- In comparison to Python or MATLAB, R is slower
- It consumes a lot of memory
- Poor documentation
- Innately fast
- Easy to understand and learn
- Good compatibility with various programming languages Reduced server workload
- Client-side security
- Poor Support for older browsers
- Lack of debugging facility
- Only supports single inheritance
Python is the best programming language to learn in 2023 if you’re interested in web and software development. It is a general-purpose language and can be used to create different programs for different problems. It has a huge community of programmers and can be used by developers and non-developers.
Learning Level: Beginner to Intermediate Level
Skills Needed: The basic understanding of programming.
- Python is simple to learn and understand.
- It increases efficiency.
- There are several libraries and resources available for Python.
- It is adaptable.
- Python has an active community.
- It is free and open-source.
- Python has a speed limitation.
- Runtime mistakes are possible with Python.
- Python uses a lot of memory.
- It is not very suitable for mobile computing.
Popularity: Python programming language is the most popular and most commonly used programming language in the world. According to the TIOBE index for November 2022, it is the number one top programming language for developers.
Average Annual Salary: $102,528 / yr.
If you are interested in learning Python, check out this Python for Beginners course on Udemy.
It’s never too late to learn a new programming language. In fact, there are many reasons why learning a new language can be beneficial, including the potential to give your career a boost. This article provided a list of some of the best programming languages to learn in 2023.
So whether you’re looking to boost your career or simply want to try something new, these choices are a great place to start.
FAQ on Programming Languages to Learn
What are the best programming languages to learn?
If you want to learn how to program games, then you should consider learning C++. But, if you want to write apps for mobile devices, then Swift is a good option. For creating websites, PHP or WordPress are the two top choices to consider.
Which programming language should I learn first as a beginner?
If you want to start learning programming and want something simple, Python is always a good choice. Python is easy to learn for a person new to programming as you will not be subject to rigid syntax constraints.
Which programming language should I learn first for web development?
If you are looking for a programming language for web development, then Python is your best choice because it is easy to get started with and can be used to build websites, mobile applications, and desktop applications.
What is the best programming language for game development in 2022?
The best programming language for game development in 2022 is C++ because it’s a high-level language that allows you to write games quickly, and it’s supported by many popular game engines, such as Unreal Engine 4 and Unity.
What is the highest-paying programming language?
At $164,824 / yr, the highest-paying programming language is Golang. Go can be used to create cloud and server side applications as well as programs related to networking and infrastructure, and because it’s open source, there are many resources available online that you can use to learn more about the language.